What is Mediumship?

What is Trance Mediumship and Channeling?

Why Seek Spirit Communication?: Three Part Series

Helpful Hints on Consulting a Medium or Psychic

Physical Mediumship: Three Part Series

The Ethics of Mediumship by Eileen Garrett

Helpful Hints on Development

Pioneers in Mediumship and Psychic Research

A Tribute to Eileen Roberts


Mina "Margery" Crandon (1888-1941)


Mina Crandon (more commonly known as Margery) is, perhaps, the most controversial medium in the history of Spiritualism. In her heyday, in the 1920's, she spurred comments from some of the most noted Spiritualists and parapsychologists.

Dr. Joseph B. Rhine, father of modern-day parapsychology, once said:

"I think the main value of the Margery case was in the great stir it made in bringing together people from different parts of the world who saw the possible significance of such claims if verified."

Hereward Carrington, one of this country's most noted pioneer psychic investigators, wrote:

"As a result of more than forty sittings with Margery, I have arrived at the definite conclusion that genuine supernormal phenomena frequently occur. Many of the observed manifestations might well have been produced fraudulently . . . however, there remains a number of instances when phenomena were produced and observed under practically perfect control."

The opinions surrounding the Margery mediumship were as diverse as the phenomena themselves. While the novelist Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was saying, "The phenomena . . . are perhaps the best attested in the whole annals of psychic research," America's psychic investigator, Dr. Walter Franklin Prince, was saying, "Now, in my judgment, the Margery case will in time come to be considered the most ingenious, persistent and fantastic complex of fraud in the history of psychic research."

Let us take a brief look at the Margery mediumship and see what the facts indicate. Mina Stinson was born in Canada, in 1888, and moved to Boston at an early age. In 1918, after one unsuccessful marriage, she married Boston surgeon Dr. Le Roi Goddard Crandon, a man whose family dated back to the Mayflower. They purchased the house at Number 11 Lime Street, on Beacon Hill, and became well established in Boston society. The Crandons were the perfect Beacon Hill couple. Dr. Crandon was a prestigious instructor at Harvard Medical School, and Mina Crandon was piquant, witty, and "too attractive for her own good."

In 1923, Dr. Crandon became seriously interested in Spiritualism and psychic research. In May of that year, the Crandons, along with some friends, decided to sit for a table-tilting seance. The table, apparently controlled by a spirit, indicated that Mina, herself, was a very powerful medium. Within a few months, the spirit communicator identified himself as Walter, Mina's brother who had died in a train crash in 1911. Shortly thereafter, Walter was able to entrance Mina and speak directly through her. Then, having mastered the ability to produce a voice box, he began speaking via the direct voice process.

Walter characteristically was not the most spiritually-minded personality. He often used off-color language and refused to be stumped. During one sťance, a sitter asked if his was the language of the "Fourth Dimension." Walter promptly retorted, "No, I am talking in a language for you to understand." Walter felt that his mission was to help demonstrate, through his sister, the creative process of mind, via telekinetic effects, rather than deliver inspirational messages or addresses. In this respect, he excelled.

Despite the abundant production of phenomena, because of Dr. Crandon's position with Harvard and the closed-minded attitude toward psychic matters, attendance to the sittings with Mina Crandon was by invitation only.

The first formal investigation of Mrs. Crandon's mediumship was conducted in 1923 by a committee from Harvard, arranged by Professor William McDougall, head of Harvard's Department of Psychology. The committee put Mrs. Crandon through intense observation and experimentation, hoping to verify either the validity or the fraudulence of the mediumship. After five months of observation, the committee decided that a majority of the telekinetic phenomena were fraudulently produced. They made no formal opinion on the trance utterances associated with the mediumship.

At the same time the Harvard investigation was being conducted, the Scientific American magazine was offering a prize of $2,500 to anyone who could provide conclusive evidence of any paranormal psychical phenomena. The judging committee was comprised of Dr. Walter F. Prince, Hereward Carrington, Dr. D. F. Comstock, Dr. William McDougall, and Harry Houdini. The secretary of the committee was J. Malcolm Bird, editor of the prestigious magazine. Because of their conservative, yet daring, personalities, the Crandons decided to enter the contest. It was J. Malcolm Bird who adopted the Margery pseudonym, in order to avoid attracting unnecessary attention to the distinguished Dr. Crandon.

The official sittings began in January, 1924, under Dr. Crandon's general supervision. The control conditions of the sťance room were produced at just about every sitting; however, the committee wished to exert even more control over the proceedings, to be absolutely sure that there was no room for fraud. Despite the lack of full agreement between the committee and Dr. Crandon, J. Malcolm Bird began writing articles favoring the mediumship, and the newspapers were quick to pick up the stories. Headlines soon read:

Margery, Boston Medium, Passes all Psychic Tests
Scientists Find No Trickery in a Score of Sťances
Boston Medium Baffles Experts
Houdini the Magician Stumped

The great magician, Harry Houdini, was infuriated. The Scientific American was just about ready to hand over the money, and his reputation, as an exposer of mediums, was challenged. He promptly constructed a cabinet, with steel bolts and padlocks, and stuck Margery in it, defying her to produce any paranormal phenomena. The cabinet was hot, cramped, and stuffy; but Margery agreed to sit in it for a seance. On this occasion, no telekinetic effects were produced, and Walter accused Houdini of planting something in the cabinet in order to frame Margery. A heated argument ensued, with Walter blurting out, "Houdini . . . get . . . out of here and never come back! If you don't, I will!"

The seance abruptly ended, and, after the cabinet was opened, a collapsible ruler was discovered beneath the floor. Houdini accused Margery of using this ruler with her mouth, in order to produce the telekinetic effects which normally would have been produced. Harry Houdini had apparently exposed Margery as a fraud; or so it seemed from 1924, until 1959, when William Lindsay Gresham published a book which included the following account of that evening:

"Years later, when the Self-Liberator (Houdini) was dead, Jim Collins (Houdini's assistant) was asked about the mysterious ruler. Collins smiled wryly. 'I chucked it in the box meself. The boss told me to do it. He wanted to fix her good.'"

Was Jim Collins telling the truth here? Only he and Harry Houdini know for sure.

To us, the most astounding aspect of the Margery mediumship was the diversity of phenomena which occurred. They ranged from breezes, raps, trance and trance writing in several languages, to materializations, independent voice, apportations, and the production of paraffin gloves and finger prints. Anyone interested in researching the phenomena may do so by consulting the Journal and Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research. Despite the range and abundance of phenomena, many of which were produced under extremely tight control, and despite the great support given to Margery by local Spiritualists, her mediumship was shrouded, for the most part, by an ominous cloud of skepticism.

The final deathblow to the Margery mediumship occurred when it was discovered that a psychic thumb print, allegedly produced by Walter, was identical to the print of a Boston dentist, Dr. Frederick Caldwell. This revelation was brought about when Dr. Caldwell admitted giving Margery a bit of wax in which his own print had been pressed.

Here, we have just a glimpse of the controversy which surrounded the Margery mediumship, right from its inception. It was this controversy which made Mina Margery Crandon the most talked-about medium during the 1920√s. On the one hand, Spiritualists looked upon her as a martyr who had put up with an amazing complex of test devices for the sake of demonstrating paranormal phenomena. On the other hand, there were the psychic researchers who, for the most part, were convinced, often before sitting with her, that she was a fraud. Finally, there was Dr. Crandon, himself, who, quite frankly, was more concerned over his reputation within Boston society than with his wife's abilities.

At the expense of sounding naive or gullible, we must contend that there was a great deal about this medium and her activities which were buried with her. People frequently have a tendency to judge a person's whole life based on a few isolated facts; it is here where, we feel, we must be fair with Margery Crandon. She was under a great deal of pressure from many sources. Furthermore, she was investigated by researchers who, quite honestly, had many preconceived ideas about her and who knew next to nothing about physical mediumship.

There is a psychology and a very delicate balance of sensitivity which must be fully appreciated, in order to investigate mediumship, especially physical mediumship. So often, people fail to recognize the acute sensitivity of a medium, let alone that of the spirit workers. The success of mediumship depends upon many factors, most of which we simply do not understand. Here is where, in our opinion, many Spiritualists and parapsychologists failed miserably with respect to the Margery mediumship. Over 50 years later, we cannot help but feel that the real implications behind Margery Crandon's mediumship were severely neglected and have eluded us.

Was Mina Margery Crandon a fraud? This, only the reader can answer? Personally, we do not feel the question of fraudulence or honesty is even the cardinal issue here. After extensively researching this case, we have formulated our own opinions. We can only hope that you not judge Margery, or any medium, solely on the basis of superficial facts. When dealing with mediumship, facts can be just as eluding as fantasy; furthermore, truth is, very often, stranger than fiction. Let us not look only at the stated facts and opinions. Let us look at what these facts have to say about mediumship.

Mina Stinson Crandon died in her sleep on November 1, 1941. She died without any reconciliation concerning her work as a medium. Mark W. Richardson, a friend of the Crandons, wrote of her:

"Unhappy and disillusioned as to the value of her work, she was pursued first by Dr. Crandon's long illness and then by her own . . . But Margery was wrong. Her fame has spread to all corners of the earth, and the facts, astounding in their nature, brought out through her and Walter, are bound to have an epoch-making influence upon the physical and spiritual thought of the future."

There is a wonderful book, written by J. Malcolm Bird, entitled "Margery" The Medium. It was published by Small, Maynard & Company, Boston, in 1925. It contains a complete investigation and analysis of the Margery mediumship. We highly recommend it.

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